EN Scaffold Access & working platforms - Free download as PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Scaffold Manual (Code of Practice). According to EN a scaffold should be designed for two also per- forms a coupler check as defined in EN Downloads. Home; BS EN Preview $; Add to Cart. Printed Edition + PDF; Immediate download; $; Add to Cart.
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BS EN Temporary works equipment. Scaffolds. Performance requirements and general design;. • BS EN Temporary works. download from BSI Download from CIS *. * A valid subscription to The Construction BS EN Temporary works equipment. Scaffolds - Performance. or SS-EN respectively, where an absolute mini- . 'Temporary works equipment - Part 1: Scaffolds -.
However they are more flexible and have a lower resistance to stress. Tubes are generally bought in 6.
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Most large companies will brand their tubes with their name and address in order to deter theft. Boards provide a working surface for scaffold users. The board ends are protected either by metal plates called hoop irons or sometimes nail plates, which often have the company name stamped into them.
Timber scaffold boards in the UK should comply with the requirements of BS As well as timber, steel or aluminium decking is used, as well as laminate boards.
In addition to the boards for the working platform, there are sole boards which are placed beneath the scaffolding if the surface is soft or otherwise suspect, although ordinary boards can also be used. Another solution, called a scaffpad, is made from a rubber base with a base plate moulded inside; these are desirable for use on uneven ground since they adapt, whereas sole boards may split and have to be replaced.
A short section of steel scaffold tube. Couplers are the fittings which hold the tubes together. The most common are called scaffold couplers, and there are three basic types: right-angle couplers, putlog couplers and swivel couplers. To join tubes end-to-end joint pins also called spigots or sleeve couplers are used.
Only right angle couplers and swivel couplers can be used to fix tube in a 'load-bearing connection'. Single couplers are not load-bearing couplers and have no design capacity. Other common scaffolding components include base plates, ladders , ropes , anchor ties, reveal ties, gin wheels, sheeting, etc. Most companies will adopt a specific colour to paint the scaffolding with, in order that quick visual identification can be made in case of theft.
All components that are made from metal can be painted but items that are wooden should never be painted as this could hide defects.
Bamboo scaffolding is widely used in Hong Kong  and Macau  , with nylon straps tied into knots as couplers. Basic scaffolding[ edit ] The key elements of the scaffolding are the standard, ledger and transoms.
The standards, also called uprights, are the vertical tubes that transfer the entire weight of the structure to the ground where they rest on a square base plate to spread the load.
The base plate has a shank in its centre to hold the tube and is sometimes pinned to a sole board. Ledgers are horizontal tubes which connect between the standards. Transoms rest upon the ledgers at right angles. Main transoms are placed next to the standards, they hold the standards in place and provide support for boards; intermediate transoms are those placed between the main transoms to provide extra support for boards.
In Canada this style is referred to as "English". Scaffolding in Tretyakovsky Proyezd , Moscow As well as the tubes at right angles there are cross braces to increase rigidity, these are placed diagonally from ledger to ledger, next to the standards to which they are fitted. If the braces are fitted to the ledgers they are called ledger braces. Of the couplers previously mentioned, right-angle couplers join ledgers or transoms to standards, putlog or single couplers join board bearing transoms to ledgers - Non-board bearing transoms should be fixed using a right-angle coupler.
Swivel couplers are to connect tubes at any other angle. Frame systems are a special type of modular systems in which standards and transoms are already welded together as fixed frames. Modelling methods Direct Scaffold Modelling All standard modelling and manipulation copy, move, mirror, etc.
In the case a 2D or 3D CAD model of the scaffold is available, this is directly imported as an analysis model. Even an architectural model is imported, which allows the user to model the scaffold next to the existing building. In addition, any pre-prepared User Blocks, i. Scaffolding Templates Engineers who deal with the design of scaffolds regularly will definitely welcome the possibility to prepare tailor-made templates for all types of scaffolds they have to handle.
The advantage of using templates is that all common data e. Analysis The analysis of the scaffold includes proper defi- nition of loads and combinations, calculation and design in compliance with the scaffolding-related code.
Loading According to EN a scaffold should be designed for two specific conditions: In Service: characterized by a high working load and only a minor wind loading. Out of Service: characterized by an extreme wind loading and a small percentage of the working load.
Templates save a lot of effort as they may have predefined all required load cases and combinations. Load Generators enable the user to define the loading plane and the program automatically distributes the loading on all members within that plane.
This is for example used for generation of wind loading on the scaffold. SCIA Engineer uses a stability analysis to determine the buckling shapes of the scaffold, which in turn are used as imperfections for the full second order analysis. Other calculation features are used for handling of various specifics of scaffold structures: non-linear functions for coupler stiffness, friction supports for base jacks, pressure-only supports for abutments, gap elements for margins between the pen and hole, etc.
Design: limit states In the ultimate limit state, the scaffold members are checked according to the capacity check defined in EN Clear performance standards should be set The contractor should dictate safety standards on the site. For example the scaffolding policy could state that all edges will be protected by guard-rails and toe-boards.
Site survey Where they do not have prior knowledge of the site, a competent person or scaffolder should undertake, on behalf of the scaffolding contractor, a survey of the location where the scaffolding is to be erected. The survey should be carried out before the design or erection of the scaffold and should consider the risks that exist on site.
Recommendations Where a scaffolder makes reasonable recommendations to the contractor in relation to the scaffold, the contractor should implement these. If a contractor fails to fully apply the recommendations given by a competent scaffolder, then the contractor may be contravening the requirements of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act Successful implementation requires that the following issues be addressed. Responsibilities Individual responsibilities should be clearly communicated by the contractor and the scaffolder.
Persons should be given the authority and resources to carry out their responsibilities and individuals should be held accountable for their successes or failures in performing their duties. Instruction, training and competence Both the contractor and the scaffolder are required to provide information, instruction, training and supervision to their own employees.
The instruction and training that is required for design and erection of the scaffolding should be identified by the scaffolding contractor. The instruction and training that 26 Health and Safety Authority Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds is required for safe use of the scaffolding should be identified by the contractor.
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In each case, persons performing the work should have the appropriate level of competence. Communication Relevant information relating to design, scheduling, loading etc. For example those performing periodic safety inspections need to know the maximum design imposed load and tie spacing, and those erecting the scaffold need to have copies of the system scaffold erection instructions available.
Documentation Appropriate documentation must be kept available on site. Such documentation will include safety statements, safety and health plans, scaffolding plans and inspection records, e. Any defect or issue noted in a scaffolding inspection record must be signed off as rectified when the particular item is attended to and made safe.
Periodic checking is necessary to determine if performance standards are being met and to enable early corrective action to be taken. More frequent inspections will be required where there is evidence of recurring deficiencies, unauthorised modification or other circumstances that might affect the strength and stability of the scaffold.
The root cause of serious or recurring defects should be identified and corrective action taken to prevent further recurrence. The review stage helps to make each job a learning experience so that the next job can be performed more effectively.
The following questions should be asked: Was the planning adequate or were there unwelcome surprises? Was the implementation adequate so that the job was completed as planned? Were the planned checks carried out and did the necessary corrective action take place? What changes will be necessary for the next job? Choice of Scaffolding Equipment Scaffolding equipment should be selected on the basis of a risk assessment that takes account of the nature of the work to be performed, the loads to be withstood and the height from which falls may occur.
The decision may also be affected by the shape of the building; the environment that the scaffolding is to be erected in; the capacity of the foundations; the duration that the scaffolding is to remain in place; and the ability to provide ties to the scaffolding.
Layout and Design A well laid-out scaffold will require the minimum amount of modification during its life and will be capable of being erected, used and dismantled in safety. Layout The initial layout will have a significant impact upon the safety of the completed scaffold. When considering the layout the following points should be remembered. The scaffold should be laid out so as to reduce the gap between the structure and the scaffold to a minimum, except where guard-rails will be erected adjacent to the structure.
The standards should be positioned so as to avoid manhole lids or shallow drains, which may not be able to sustain the scaffold loading.
Structural Design of Scaffolds Strength and stability calculations for scaffolding should be carried out unless: a record of the calculations covering the structural arrangements contemplated is available; or the scaffolding is to be assembled in conformity with a generally recognised standard configuration. Scaffolding contractors must specify the system of scaffolding in use, and provide copies of the manufacturers guidelines to the Contractor and the Project Supervisor for the Construction Stage PSCS.
Where the contractor intends to load materials onto the scaffold by crane or 29 Health and Safety Authority Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds teleporter, loading bays should be incorporated into the scaffolding at appropriate locations.
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If material has to be loaded directly onto the working platform, the risks of overloading or destabilising the scaffold must first be assessed by the contractor and the loading controlled. All other forms of scaffold, including special scaffolds, should be subject to design and calculation by a competent designer.
Sections 6 and 10 of I. EN Part 1, provide technical data for the structural design of scaffolds. For illustrative purposes, typical examples where design and calculation may be necessary include: sheeted system scaffolds; system scaffolds erected in areas where the wind pressure exceeds that specified in I. EN Part 1, or where the design wind speed exceeds that specified by the scaffolding manufacturer; system scaffolds where the maximum height, tie spacing, imposed loads, bay widths or number of working lifts exceeds the manufacturers recommendations; scaffolds where the tie or anchorage capacity is less than 6.
Refer to Appendix E for a range of guidance documents on the use of I. EN Part 1. Building Design and Scaffold Erection The design of the temporary works can be affected by, or can affect, the design of the permanent works. For example many system scaffolds require that every standard be tied to the structure under construction or to some other substantial structure.
The best arrangement is where the ties can be left in place until final dismantling of the scaffold. The PSDP and the PSCS should, at an early stage, seek the co-operation of building designers in permitting the attachment of non-movable ties to the building structure where such attachment is reasonably practicable.
Timely provision of adequate details of the proposed permanent works is necessary in order to properly schedule the construction of the temporary works. Project supervisors should co-ordinate these matters, for example they should provide information on the proposed location of adjacent drains or other excavations to the temporary works designer or contractor so that they can ensure that the foundations of the relevant scaffolds are not undermined.
Where such information is not received in a timely manner, the project supervisors should ensure that adequate time is allowed for the safe completion of the project. Erection Scheduling Proper scheduling of activities is necessary in order to ensure that the scaffold is available and safe to use when it is needed and that the activities of an individual trade do not endanger the scaffold or the users of the scaffold.
The following scheduling issues should be considered. Where scaffolds are providing edge protection, e. Where movable ties are provided, replacement ties should be installed before existing ties are removed to facilitate plasterers, glaziers or other trades. The particular needs of scaffold users or specific trades should be determined in advance so that adequate scaffolding provision can be made before they commence working.
Adjacent excavations, which could undermine the scaffold foundation, should be back-filled before scaffold erection or the excavations should be deferred until after the scaffold has been dismantled.
Planning for Use and Maintenance A scaffold rarely stays the same between initial erection and final dismantling. There is therefore a need to plan how the scaffold will be modified, inspected and maintained.
The following issues should be considered when planning for use and maintenance. The particular needs of different trades working on the scaffold. Imposed loads, scheduling painters, plasterers and bricklayers work at significantly different rates , cantilever brackets, adjustments to ties and guard-rails etc. A competent person with responsibility for modifying, inspecting and maintaining the scaffold should be appointed.
An adequate number of competent scaffolders should be available to the site to allow modifications to be made in good time. The full-time attendance of at least one competent scaffolder may be required on sites where modifications are likely to be frequent.
The restrictions on imposed loads and unauthorised modifications to the scaffold should be communicated to users. The contact person for complaints or requests for scaffolding modifications should be identified. This should be done as part of the normal health and safety induction, which everybody on site should receive.
Information to downloadrs or Hirers of Scaffolding Equipment The manufacturers and suppliers of system scaffolds and components have a duty to supply information to the downloadr. Those supplying system scaffolds and components for hire or lease also have a duty to supply information to the hirer or lessee.
The information should include the use for which the scaffold has been designed or tested, and any information necessary to ensure that the scaffolding may be erected, dismantled and used safely. The supplier should provide a complete set of instructions that are sufficient to ensure the safe erection, use and dismantling of the scaffold. Scaffolding contractors must specify the system of scaffolding in use, and provide copies of the manufacturers guidelines to the contractor and the PSCS.
Information to Users of Scaffolding Equipment Workers should receive sufficient and, if appropriate, written information on the scaffold equipment, including safety and health information on: conditions for use of the equipment, including instructions for its safe use where appropriate, assembly and dismantling plans; any unusual conditions that can be foreseen; and any conclusions to be drawn from experience of using the type of scaffold equipment.
The information provided should be comprehensible to the workers concerned. Erection of Scaffolds 3. Safe Erection and Dismantling 3. Safety of Scaffolders The major life-threatening hazards facing scaffolders are the risk of falls from a height, falling scaffold components and contact with overhead electric lines.
The scaffolding contractor should carry out a risk assessment relating to the type of scaffolding operations to be conducted at the site. The safety statement of the scaffold erection contractor and, where appropriate, the site safety and health plan should identify the hazards that erecting a scaffold on the site is likely to present and specify the necessary precautions.
The Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Construction Regulations and the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work General Application Regulations require persons at work to be protected from the danger of falling, either by the provision and use of collective safeguards such as adequate working platforms and guardrails or, where this is not practicable, by the provision and use of safety nets or personal protective equipment such as suitable fall arrest systems incorporating safety harnesses, lanyards and anchorages.
The General Principles of Prevention see Section 1. These will normally include, where possible, the use of ladders or stairs and the placing of decking and guard-rails on each platform before scaffolders go onto it or else as soon as practicable.
Where scaffolders will be working on a standard-width scaffold for only a very short time, they may work off a threeboard-wide platform provided that guard-rails are installed immediately following the installation of the boards.
Where the necessary collective safeguards will be inadequate during certain phases of the work, personal protective equipment, e.
Construction of certain scaffold types or construction work that includes certain 34 Health and Safety Authority Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds activities may present difficulties in providing collective safeguards throughout all phases of the work.
Such work will normally require the supplementary use of personal protective equipment, including the fixing of anchorages, until collective safeguards become adequate.
Examples of such work include: cantilever loading bays; cantilever scaffolds; truss-out scaffolds; slung scaffolds; protection fans and nets; bridges and walkways; work on temporary buildings and roofs; fragile roof work; work over or near water; work in confined spaces such as sewers, deep excavations, lift wells and shafts, deep basements or sumps, where rescue may be required; and work out of integrated person baskets or mobile elevated working platforms.
Where personal protective equipment is to be used, the contractor should specify in the safety statement, and the project supervisor should incorporate into the safety and health plan, the means of personal protection, how it is to be used, the means of attachment and the rescue procedures. The contractor should provide adequate training, instruction and supervision to ensure that the personal protective equipment is used properly at all relevant times.
The references provided in Appendix E offer further guidance on working at height. Safety of Other Workers and Persons Other workers or members of the public may be placed at risk during the erection of scaffolding. Adequate precautions should be taken to eliminate or reduce the risk. Where persons cannot be excluded from the working area, they should be protected by the provision of properly constructed sheeting or fans.
Incomplete Scaffolding A scaffold should be constructed so that it is left complete and is properly tied, braced and decked and has adequate guard-rails and toe-boards. Where a scaffold is left incomplete, there is a risk that it will be used while it is in a dangerous condition. Where a scaffold is partly erected or dismantled, a prominent warning notice should be placed at each potential access point and barriers should be placed to prevent access. Such notices should be removed when they are no longer required.
The most effective way of preventing access to an incomplete scaffold is by removing all decking and ladders. Incomplete scaffolds should be completed or dismantled as soon as practicable. Materials 3. Scaffolding Providers Inspection Prior to Use Scaffolding materials should be inspected by the scaffolding provider, prior to their use on site.
This inspection can be carried out before the materials are delivered to the site. An area should be set aside for damaged or defective materials. Signs should be erected indicating that the material is defective and is not to be used. If it is determined during the erection of the scaffold that an element is defective, the scaffolder should put this defective part to the side and not incorporate it into the scaffolding.
Standards Standards are upright members that transmit the vertical loads of the scaffold to the foundations. The spacing of system scaffolding standards should follow the recommendations in the manufacturers erection instructions. For tube and fitting scaffolds, the service loads for working areas is provided in Table A1 in Appendix A. Transoms Transoms are horizontal members normally in the direction of the smaller dimensions of the working scaffold.Frames are mm high, and the width measured from the center of each tube to the other is mm.
Any defect or issue noted in a scaffolding inspection record must be signed off as rectified when the particular item is attended to and made safe. Risks should be assessed When assessing the risks associated with the identified hazards, account should be taken of both the likelihood of harm occurring and the severity of the resulting injuries see Section 1. Timely provision of adequate details of the proposed permanent works is necessary in order to properly schedule the construction of the temporary works.
Guidance on allowable bearing pressures for various soils and fill materials is given in BS , Code of practice for falsework.
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