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According to [ 7 ], behaviour of the individuals inside a group of social animals depends on their interaction with others in the group. Robots designed in such a way that they can generate particular stimuli and interact with animals, which consequently leads to acceptance of robots by animals as a part of their society, have shown a huge potential in animal behaviour research. It is clear that stimuli that can be accepted by particular animal play essential role in interaction.
For example, interactive abilities of robots that bear resemblance to an animal are presented in [ 8 , 9 ] where fish replica was used.
Based on investigation of fish movement, the authors were able to plan motion trajectories of the mobile robot situated below the experimental setup driving fish replica, so that the replica was accepted by animals. Additional step towards increased acceptance, described in [ 10 , 11 ], was development of a moving tail that can mimic body movements of a fish.
Another example of robotic replica able to actively generate stimuli is given in the study of social behaviour of the bowerbird [ 12 ], where a robot was used for male courtship response. Due to very small dimension of honeybees, for the research presented herein more significant were results obtained by robots that are quite different in size and shape of animals they interact with.
Wheeled miniature mobile robots treated with attractive chemical clue were used in ethological experiments with cockroaches [ 13 , 14 ]. It has been shown that animals accepted robots as their equals, so that robots became members of the animal society. Another example is a mobile robot able to generate visual and acoustic stimuli that was introduced for social integration in a group of chickens [ 15 ].
An important insight that these experiments clearly yielded is the feasibility of interaction with animal society by generating attractive or repellent stimulation, with a robot that does not necessarily physically resemble the animal it is interacting with.
This fact was of the prime importance when we considered design of our system. Among many scientifically interesting species, the honeybees have been chosen for collective intelligence exploration not only because of their important impact on human society, but also because of many interesting phenomena that emerge within a group due to intricate communication queues and complex honeybee society structure.
Different aspects of their subtle behaviour have been the subject of intensive research in biology for decades, including the waggle dance, which can exhibit a range of signals for food location and availability [ 16 ], thermotactic aggregation [ 17 ], and vibration freezing effect [ 18 ].
To explore models and algorithms responsible for collective decision making in the honeybee society, in contrast with [ 19 ] where a honeybee size robot was developed whose motion is controlled in two-dimensional space for the study of honeybee dance communication system, we developed a network of novel interactive robots equipped with relevant actuating and sensing capabilities.
The network is comprised of stationary robots, called CASUs Combined Actuator-Sensor Units , equally distributed in an experimental arena where non flying juvenile honeybees can move freely.
Having in mind limited sensing and operating range of previously used interactive robots, as well as the drawbacks of their centralized visual feedback approach that neglected information of other physical states, and taking into consideration the nature of a biological system used in presented research a group of social animals a multi-robot approach self-imposed as a logical technique of choice for exploration and integration into natural society.
If one considers the number of interactions between individuals in our case honeybees within a group per time unit, then the only way to achieve similar order of interactions between animals and technical system is usage of multiple robots.
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Currently, due to limited computational power, as well as sensors and actuators dimensions, interactive capabilities of a single robot are far below the level required for successful cooperation with large animal groups. The multi-robot approach overcomes these computational and physical constraints through distribution.
The concept of a network of stationary units was chosen, instead of designing mobile robots, because of its advantages regarding constraints on size, stimuli generation and energy demand. This concept has been introduced in [ 20 ], where the reaction of honeybees on physical stimuli was experimentally evaluated.
The increased robustness of multi-robot systems, due to both decentralization and redundancy, extends the field of possible applications making the system adaptive to environmental conditions and less constrained by physical limitations.
Additionally, the flexibility of such systems enables them to solve problems more efficiently in a distributed manner through parallelism, again in a wide variety of applications and robustly through reconfigurability and adaptation. With a set of capabilities and characteristics as described, multi-robot systems have been proven successful in solving problems impossible for single robot operation [ 21 ].
Finally, stemming mainly from decentralization and redundancy, the feasibility of such systems is increased by energy and electro-mechanical cost efficiency because of exclusion of expensive centralised sensory, actuator, and computation units upon which single robot systems usually depend.
These advantages of multi-robot systems justify their deployment even in applications solvable by single robots, but in a faster, more efficient, more robust, or cheaper way. Where a decentralized approach is chosen, multiple physical constraints such as communication ranges, energy distribution and other limitations can be overcome, however at the expense of even higher and more complex structure and organization of control [ 22 ].
Along with multi-robot systems development, adequate control and coordination mechanisms are being developed simultaneously.
A set of independent, relatively simple and limited units needs to be guided by an intelligent algorithm in order to fully achieve its potential, beyond the sole inherent redundancy.
In a pursuit of such an algorithm, there are several requirements that need to be met.
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First of all, it is necessary to maintain a locally based consistent view of the common objective and current state of the system among all of the individuals. Additionally, this kind of cooperation is to be conducted based on information that can only be propagated and updated through the network of robots by means of local neighbour to neighbour interaction.
One of the prominent distributed control algorithms that satisfies these requirements, with many more additional desirable properties, such as time-delay robustness, is the consensus algorithm [ 23 — 25 ], which is therefore also deployed in this work. This paper describes the developed system starting from the requirements that needed to be met in order to achieve robot integration with a group of juvenile honeybees.
Mechanical and electrical properties of the designed system are described in detail, with emphasis on the modularity, scalability, and hardware architecture of a decentralized multi-robot system. The control algorithm is explained along with the mathematical assumptions and model of the desired system dynamics.
Verification of the system functionality has been conducted by a set of experiments planned so that i local interactions between CASUs and honeybees were confirmed, and ii collective decision was done in decentralized manner.
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Heating and electricity needs are covered by converting and distributing different types of energy. It achieves up to 6 tonnes per year of CO2 reduction.
Then, this amount is removed to an outdoor biogas plant to produce biogas. Boreholes for storage: The boreholes consist of wells located under the building subsoil and are used to store heat from 16 to 35 degrees depending on the season.
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Heat pump: When a higher temperature is required for heating or hot water, a highly efficient heat pump is used in pumping it back into the system. This includes the control of the algae cell density and the temperature in the culture medium. Photovoltaics not implemented : Initially, the original plan envisaged the use of photovoltaics on the extensively greened roof surface. But this was not implemented.
Therefore, until installation of PV system, all electricity required is provided from the grid.
Much of the heat is therefore needed on a seasonal basis for hot water. Zumtobel Group Award in the category "Applied Innovations".They are designing a system enabling robust hands-free large-vocabulary voice-based access to Internet applications in smart homes.
It is clear even at a glance that this mechanism does not depend on the group size or other physical properties, yet always guides a group of individuals autonomously towards a common objective.
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Additionally, this kind of cooperation is to be conducted based on information that can only be propagated and updated through the network of robots by means of local neighbour to neighbour interaction.
Downloads Find all our print products with information about EML and its services here. Binweevils membership hack and max play 3, typeshala for windows Heat pump: When a higher temperature is required for heating or hot water, a highly efficient heat pump is used in pumping it back into the system.